Saloni Bandhu , Asst. Professor at Sunder Deep College of Architecture, Ghaziabad
Smart city is a city of Human, Social, traditional, modern communication, infrastructure, fuel sustainable, economic development & high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources through participatory governance.
The city agendas are city operation systems i.e City Services should run smoothly, City User systems i.e businesses and employment for the people should be generated, City Infrastructure systems i.e Water, Communication, Energy & Transport should be provided to all.
Government of India announced 100 smart cities in the year 2014.
Standards can be defined as a Set of Rules & Regulations or A framework & guidelines to execute certain project or Task.
Relationship between Smart Cities & Standards
“Cities will have to navigate a whole host of challenges in their pursuit of sustainability. Setting international standards to govern sectors like mobility, energy and water in the urban development process will be crucial to enable smart cities to reach their goals.”
However, they are one common denominator that greatly simplifies this task.
Standards support the development of tailor-made solutions that can be adapted to the particular circumstances of a given city.
Ways Standards make a city Smarter
Standards make things work safely and smoothly together at every level in cities.
They provide the foundation for electricity access and they support the information and
communication technologies that enable data collection, exchange and analysis, and
Standards will support smooth and integrated Smart City development.
Standards provide important guidance for all aspects of city life, including energyefficient
buildings, intelligent transportation, improved waste management, building
sustainable communities and much, much more.
How Standards can make a city Smarter?
The answer is by integrating GRIHA Standards and Guidelines in Smart City Project.
GRIHA – Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment
GRIHA Council, is mandated to promote development of buildings and habitats in India through GRIHA.
GRIHA Council is an independent platform for the interaction on scientific and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats in the Indian subcontinent.
It was founded by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi) with support from MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India) along with a handful of experts in the sustainability of built environment from across the country
Key Highlights of GRIHA
Sets out guidelines for design, construction and operation.
Combination of qualitative and quantitative criteria.
Sets performances benchmarks for key resources like, energy and water.
Facilitates integration of traditional knowledge on architecture with present day technology
Integrates all relevant Indian codes and standards (e.g National building code 2005,Energy Conservation Building Code 2007, IS codes)
Is in complete alignment with government policies and programs (e.g Environmental clearance by the MoEF)
Criterions of GRIHA
Criterion 1 Site selection
Criterion 2 Preserve and protect landscape during construction
Criterion 3 Soil conservation (till post-construction)
Criterion 4 Design to include existing site features
Criterion 5 Reduce hard paving on-site and/or provide shaded hard-paved surfaces
Criterion 6 Enhance outdoor lighting system efficiency and use renewable energy system for meeting outdoor lighting requirement
Criterion 7 Plan utilities efficiently and optimize on-site circulation efficiency
Health and Well Being
Criterion 8 Provide minimum level of sanitation/safety facilities for construction workers
Criterion 9 Reduce air pollution during construction
Building Planning and Construction Stage
Criterion 10 Reduce landscape water requirement
Criterion 11 Reduce the water use by the building
Criterion 12 Efficient water use during construction
Criterion 13 Optimize building design to reduce conventional energy demand
Criterion 14 Optimize energy performance of building within specified comfort limits
Criterion 15 Utilization of flyash in building structure
Criterion 16 Reduce volume and weight, and time of construction by adopting efficient technologies
Criterion 17 Use low-energy material in interiors
Criterion 18 Renewable energy utilization
Criterion 19 Renewable-energy-based hot water system
Recycle, Recharge & Reuse
Criterion 20 Waste-water treatment
Criterion 21 Water recycle and reuse (including rainwater)
Criterion 22 Reduction in waste during construction
Criterion 23 Efficient waste segregation
Criterion 24 Storage and disposal of wastes
Criterion 25 Resource recovery from waste
Health & Well Being
Criterion 26 Use low-VOC paints/adhesives/sealants
Criterion 27 Minimize ozone depleting substances
Criterion 28 Ensure water quality
Criterion 29 Acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels
Criterion 30 Tobacco smoke control
Criterion 31 Provide at least the minimum level of accessibility for persons with disabilities
Building Operation and Maintenance
Criterion 32 Energy audit and validation
Criterion 33 Operation and maintenance
These criterions of GRIHA help in having a sustainable development.
GRIHA RATING SYSTEM
Set of 34 criteria
100 points & (+4 innovation points)
Point system with differential weight age on various Criteria
Therefore five ways to make our cities smarter are by having a global outlook, smart standards and regulations, public private partnership for economic sustainability, local innovation and last but not the least developing and implementing Environment Friendly rules n regulations for each Country and its city.