Concrete is an important building material which is widely used in construction works, from light to major heavily construction works. No matter how precisely and carefully the concrete is prepared, eventually it ends up in cracking at some point. Cracks in concrete affects the durability of structure, weakens the strength of concrete, increases permeability, increased the chances of corrosion in reinforcement, makes the structure weak and ultimately fails. Bio concrete is something that connects the nature with the construction. This is a self-healing organic concrete that contains bacteria. These bacteria are aerobic in nature and called as Bacillus Pseudofirmus, Bacillus sporosarcine pasteurii, Bacillus halodurans.
Bacteria and organic matter (calcium lactate) is mixed with concrete. The bacteria can lie dormant (inactive) in the concrete for upto 200 years after construction. It can only be active when it comes in contact with water. When the crack begins in concrete structure, water enters the crack and activating the bacteria inside. They multiple and germinate in calcium based nutrient called calcium lactate and form limestone (CaCo3) or calcite which fill the cracks. The cracks are sealed only in 3 weeks.
The use of Bio concrete in India will be very beneficial. As the climate of India is diverse and vary from region to region so there is a temperature change which can deteriorate the concrete surface and ultimately leads to the formation of cracks. Bio concrete reduces the maintenance cost, reduces the chances of corrosion in reinforcement, offers resistance to freezing and thawing attacks, decreases permeability, makes the structure long lasting/ durable.